La rentabilidad de los bancos múltiples (Top 5 consolidado) en la República Dominicana se mantuvo en ascenso durante el 2018, logrando un 22.4% de ROE antes de impuestos frente a un 20.5% en el 2017. De igual forma, la tasa de eficiencia (productividad) del Top 5 de la banca múltiple mejoró de 67.2% en 2017 a 66.1% en 2018, alineado con el aumento de la rentabilidad. La solvencia de los bancos se situó en 15.9% registrando una reducción continuada con respecto a años anteriores (17.1% en 2016 y 16.9% en 2017). El sector de las Asociaciones de Ahorros y Préstamos (AA&P) sigue manteniendo una participación de mercado en cartera crediticia relevante, aunque por debajo de la banca múltiple (86.95% de la banca múltiple vs 10.21% de las AA&P). Si bien existe una diferencia sustancial en ROE entre los dos tipos de entidades (21.76% en la banca múltiple vs 9.91% en las AA&P), la brecha es más ajustada en ROA (2.27% en la banca múltiple vs 1.94% en las AA&P).
The Puerto Rico banking industry closed the year 2018 on a high note, registering a Pre-Tax ROE of 14%, the highest level of profitability since 2005. The divergence between the profitability of local banks and US commercial banks narrowed significantly in 2018 with US commercial banks reporting a Pre-Tax ROE of 15.1%. The local banking industry has become increasingly concentrated with Popular holding $37.9 billion (58%) in assets of an industry total of $65.9 billion, and the three largest banks, i.e. Popular, FirstBank and Oriental, accounting for 84% of the total. The industry-wide cost to income reached 55.9% in 2018, the lowest level since prior to the onset of the economic downturn of 2006. With few opportunities to deploy excess capital, capital levels continue to strengthen with an industry level Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital Ratio of 21.7% in 2018, compared to less than 10% in 2008. Asset quality has also been moving in the right direction, with the industry closing 2018 with a nonperforming loans ratio of 6.8%. Concerns over post-hurricane asset quality deterioration have largely dissipated. The strong profitability performance of banks in 2018 was accompanied by a strengthening of their balance sheets with total assets increasing by 5.7%, deposits by 7.9% and the industry credit portfolio by 2.8%. Given the latest trends in profitability levers, upcoming recovery funds and economic forecasts, we expect a similar or even stronger performance in 2019.
Los cinco principales bancos múltiples de la República Dominicana (Top 5 consolidado) siguen mostrando una alta rentabilidad al cierre del tercer trimestre del 2018, con un ROE antes de impuestos de 23.6% anualizado, impulsado por una economía en franco crecimiento (i.e. variación interanual del PIB real durante el periodo de enero a septiembre de 2018 de 6.9%). Vemos también un crecimiento saludable en la cartera de crédito de los bancos y gastos sobre ingresos relativamente bajos, factores que inciden también en la rentabilidad. Popular, BHDLeón y Banreservas, los principales bancos que conjuntamente administran 90% del total de activos del Top 5 y 77% de la industria, reportaron los niveles de rentabilidad más altos al cierre del tercer trimestre de 2018, con ROE pre-impuestos de 27.4%, 26.6% y 23.5%, respectivamente. Progreso y Scotia, bancos que gestionan el restante 10% de activos del Top 5, registraron ROEs pre-impuestos de 17.2% y 9.6%, respectivamente. Además, el índice de solvencia del Top 5 se situó en 17.0% en agosto del 2018, muy por encima del mínimo regulatorio de 10% establecido por ley. Finalmente, en este número analizamos la evolución de las carteras de crédito de la banca múltiple, donde observamos crecimientos elevados acompañados de una mejora en la tasa de morosidad para la mayoría de bancos.
The positive momentum in the local banking industry continued to build in the third quarter of 2018, following the historic and highly disruptive 2017 Atlantic hurricane season. The industry-wide Pre-Tax ROE in Q3 2018 reached 13.7%, following a strong first half of 2018 (Pre-Tax ROE of 8.3% in Q1 2018 and 17.4% in Q2 2018), yielding a YTD 2018 Pre-Tax ROE of 13.1%. These profitability levels have not been seen since 2005, prior to the onset of the prolonged and deep economic downturn. Concerns over the deterioration of asset quality have further abated given the latest quarterly delinquency levels. The Q3 2018 industry-wide nonperforming loans ratio stood at 7.6% from a peak of 9.2% in the wake of the hurricanes. Furthermore, after the temporal and non-recurring impact of Hurricanes Irma and Maria on the banks’ income and expenses, banking productivity levels improved materially, reaching a cost to income ratio of 56.5% in YTD 2018 from 63.8% in 2017. Capital buffers remain exceedingly strong, with a consolidated Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital ratio of 20.9%. Going forward, strong banking performance is expected to continue given the billions of dollars in public and private post-disaster reconstruction funds that will be increasingly flowing through the economy and financial system. Lastly, in this issue, we benchmarked the profitability performance of local banks against that of similar-sized United States peer banks since 2015, also breaking down profitability by income and expense levers to help explain what drove the differences in YTD 2018.
Los cinco principales bancos múltiples de la República Dominicana (Top 5) siguen mostrando un alto nivel de rentabilidad en la primera mitad del 2018 (ROE antes de impuestos del 23.8%). Les acompaña un crecimiento económico superior al 6% que podría peligrar si los precios del petróleo siguen subiendo y el Banco Central Dominicano tiene que seguir aumentando la tasa de intermediación bancaria. El semestre cierra con la noticia de la compra de Banco del Pro-greso Dominicano por parte de ScotiaBank. Esta compra deja a tan solo 4 bancos con el 86% de los activos de la banca múltiple (75% de los activos del sistema financiero dominicano) y a otros 13 bancos con el 14% restante. Por tanto, las oportunidades de seguir creciendo inorgánicamente por parte de los cuatro grandes se reducen considerablemente, dada la limitada cuota de mercado de los demás bancos múltiples. Como veremos en el informe, Scotia se afianza en la cuarta posición aunque lejos todavía de BHDLeón y tendrá oportunidades de consolidación de sucursales dada la ubicación de las del Banco del Progreso.
The local banking industry’s profitability on a consolidated basis has rebounded strongly in the wake of Hurricanes Irma and Maria, reaching a Pre-Tax ROE of 17.4% in Q2 2018, making it the highest quarterly profitability level in a decade. The liquidity position of local banks, particularly of Popular, has experienced a material improvement, with total deposits reaching $54.1 billion as of the end of Q2 2018 from $48.8 billion in Q3 2017, a $5.3 billion or 10.9% increase. Hurricane-related private insurance claims paid out to policyholders and post-disaster federal assistance funds deposited in private banks have largely driven this surge in deposits. This newfound liquidity will need to be put to productive use, either through increased lending or investments. The unadjusted nonperforming loans ratio showed some improvement in Q2 2018, decreasing from 9.2% to 8.8%, temporarily appeasing concerns of a spike in delinquencies. Capital positions of banks continue exceedingly strong, reporting an industry-wide Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital Ratio of 21.5%. The deployment of excess capital through organic and inorganic growth opportunities (e.g. Popular’s Reliable purchase), stock repurchases or dividend payments to shareholders must be strategically pondered. Moreover, in this revamped issue we analyze Post-Hurricane Maria foreclosure relief efforts and their impact on banks and the housing market.
The local banking industry as a whole registered a Pre-Tax ROE of 8.3% in Q1 2018, rebounding back to pre-hurricane levels, after dipping down to -0.6% in Q3 2017 and 1.6% in Q4 2017. All banks except Scotia posted positive Pre-Tax ROEs fluctuating from 7.6% to 11.1%. Other key banking indicators have also returned to pre-hurricane levels. The industry cost to income ratio reached 61.6% in Q1 2018 after a spike in Q4 2017 due to non-recurring, storm-related expenses. Capital adequacy metrics returned to an upward trajectory, reaching a Tier 1 Risk-Based Capital Ratio of 21.8%, providing a robust cushion for potential future losses and excess capital to acquire promising portfolios of assets for sale. On the other hand, concerns over the potential deterioration of asset quality have returned given the uptick in delinquency ratios. Moreover, in this issue, we provide a brief overview of the latest trends concerning International Banking and Financial Entities (IBEs/ IFEs). As of the end of Q1 2018, IBEs managed $50.6 billion in assets while IFEs managed 4.1 billion, jointly representing 39% of the total assets of Puerto Rico’s financial sector, making them the 2nd largest player on the island’s financial sector. Profitability and productivity of these entities have been on a healthy path since 2011.
The local banking industry’s profitability stayed in positive territory in year-end 2017, reaching an industry-wide Pre-Tax ROE of 4.6%, notwithstanding the challenging operating market conditions, characterized by an economy mired in a prolonged and deep contraction, a bankrupt government under Puerto Rico Oversight, Management and Economic Stability Act Title III court proceedings, and more recently, the devastation and ensuing cascading effects of Hurricanes Irma and María which severely disrupted the island’s normal social and economic life. During the first half of 2017 local banks on a consolidated level posted Pre-Tax ROEs above 8.5%, dipping to -0.6% in Q3 2017 and 1.6% in Q4 2017. All banks, with the exception of Scotia which took the hit in Q4, incurred in high provision expenses in Q3 2017 due to anticipated hurricane-related losses, materially decreasing in Q4 2017. Despite this panorama, bank executives remain optimistic of the short-term outlook, pointing to the influx of funds from the federal government, insurance claims, and other sources propping up deposits, favorable trends in loan payment moratoriums, and construction sector lending op- portunities when rebuilding efforts pick up. Nevertheless, downside risks to economic and bank activity still loom large.
The local banking industry’s profitability dove into negative territory in Q3 2017, posting a Pre-Tax ROE of -0.6%, after a modestly strong first half of the year. Most local banks, anticipating asset quality deterioration and loan losses in the aftermath of the historic 2017 Atlantic hurricane season, materially increased their loan loss provi-sions. Industry-wide credit provision expenses reached close to $300 million in Q3 2017, a roughly three-fold increase with respect to Q3 2016. Pre-hurricane asset quality had been showing improvement, but after Superstorms Irma and María, it is under threat given the adverse impact on economic activity, borrower’s financial standing, and labor market conditions. Since the hurricanes hit in the latter part of Q3 2017, the quarter’s cost to income ratio was not materially impacted. However, in Q4 2017, with the expected decrease in loan originations, missed loan payments, and subdued – Point of Sale – activity, income generating capacity will be restrained. On the upside, the exceedingly strong capital levels of local banks will help absorb potential post-disaster losses. This issue reviews the potential macro-impacts of the hyperactive 2017 hurricane season, as well as examines bank performance and financial condition in impacted areas post-Hurricane Katrina.
The local banking industry has done a formidable job managing its operations in a historically challenging environment, posting positive levels of profitability since 2014, and registering a Pre-Tax ROE of 8.7% during the first half of 2017. While it has been able to weather the economic and fiscal headwinds which have been fiercely and relentlessly blowing through the Island since more than a decade ago, local banks are now faced with the catastrophic aftermath brought about by the passage of Hurricanes Irma (Sep. 6) and María (Sep. 20). Moody’s has estimated economic losses could amount to $95 billion. Large capital buffers of local banks will help mitigate the potential losses due to the myriad disruptions engendered by the hurricanes. Although banks have been able to gradually improve their asset quality, registering a 90+ days past due-non accruing ratio of 5.9%, loan quality issues could reemerge due to the negative impact on business and household income and expenses. The next issue will focus further on the macro-impacts of the 2017 hurricanes, leveraging what was learned from the effects of Hurricane Katrina on the U.S. Gulf Coast’s banking sector.